Giles E. Duffield Associate Professor

Molecular biology of circadian rhythms in mammals and mosquito vectors.
Clock control of metabolism.
Giles E. Duffield

Research Interests:

The circadian clock regulates 24-hour endogenous rhythms in gene expression, biochemistry, physiology and behavior of all eukaryotic organisms. This clock is based on a cell autonomous system comprised of transcriptional-translational feedback loops. My laboratory is focused on understanding the molecular basis for the circadian clock in both vertebrate (mouse and mammalian tissue culture) and invertebrate (mosquito) animals. Circadian clock biology is relevant to human health. Dysfunction of the circadian clock underlies several disease states, including Seasonal Affective Disorder, and sleep and metabolic disorders associated with shift-work, including obesity and diabetes. Understanding of the circadian system within the African malaria vector, such as Anopheles gambiae, may allow generation of improved insect control and malaria transmission controls strategies. The lab is interested in elucidating the molecular basis of the circadian clock in the mouse and insects using a range of traditional and state of the art molecular, cellular and behavioral approaches. Our studies are supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the American Heart Association, the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, the UND Eck Institute for Global Health, the UND Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases, and the University of Notre Dame, and previously by the Royal Society, the Wellcome Trust, the NIMH.



  • Associate Professor
  • Postdoctoral and Faculty Research (Wellcome Trust Research Fellow, Royal Society University Research Fellow), Dartmouth Medical School and Imperial College London
  • Ph.D., University of Cambridge 1998


Recent Papers:

  • Duffield G.E. (2016) ‘Understanding the genes that make our circadian clocks tick’. The Conversation (online media outlet), 4 November, 2016,
  • Rund, S.S.C., Yoo, B., Alam, C.D.C., Green, T., Stephens, M.T., Zeng, E., Sheppard, A.D., George, G.F., Duffield, G.E., Milenković, T., Pfrender, M.E. (2016) Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: Network analysis reveals additional rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation. BMC Genomics 17:653.
  • Zhou, P. Robles-Murguia M., Mathew D., and Duffield G.E. (2016) Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice. Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2016, Article ID 6785948, 11 pages.
  • Champion M.M., Sheppard A.D., Rund S.S.C., Freed S.A., O’Tousa J.E. and Duffield G.E. (2015) Qualitative and quantitative proteomics methods for the analysis of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito proteome. Invited book chapter for ‘Short views on Insect Genomics and Proteomics: Insect Proteomics, Volume 2’ (Editors: T. Adeniran, R. Chandrasekar and M. Goldsmith), within the ‘Entomology in Focus’ book series (Editor: F.L. Cônsoli) (Springer publishers).
  • Zhou P., Werner J., Lee D., Sheppard A.D., Liangpunsakul S. and Duffield G.E. (2015) A dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol, 49:399-408.
  • Leming M.T., Rund S.S.C., Behura S.K., Duffield G.E., O’Tousa J.E. (2014) Adatabase of circadian and diel rhythmic gene expression in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. BMC Genomics 15:1128.
  • Metzinger M., Miramontes B., Zhou P., Liu Y., Peng J., Chapman S., Sun L., Sasser T.A., Duffield G.E., Stack M.S., Leevy W.M. (2014) Correlation of X-ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (QMR) Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice. Sensors, 14: 18526-18542.
  • Zhou P., Hummel A.D., Pywell C.M., Dong X.C. and Duffield G.E. (2014) High fat diet rescues disturbances to metabolic homeostasis and survival in the Id2 null mouse in a sex-specific manner. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 451: 374-381.
  • Balmert N.J., Rund S.S.C., Ghazi J.P., Zhou P., Duffield G.E. (2014) Time-of-day specific changes in metabolic detoxification and insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Journal of Insect Physiology 64:30-39 [published ahead of print 2014 March 11].
  • Zhou P., Ross R.A., Pywell C., Liangpunsakul S. and Duffield G.E. (2014) Disturbances to the murine hepatic circadian clock in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. Scientific Reports (Nature publishing) 4: 3725.
  • Mathew D., Pywell C.M., Zhou P., Van der Veen D.R., Shao J., Xi Y., Bonar N.A., Hummel A., Chapman S., Leevy W.M, Duffield G.E. (2013) Ablation of the Id2 gene results in altered circadian feeding behavior, and sex-specific enhancement of insulin sensitivity and elevated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. PLoS ONE 8: e73064.
  • Jagannath A., Butler R., Godinho S.I.H., Couch Y., Brown L.A., Vasudevan S.R., Flanagan K.C., Anthony D.C., Churchill G.C., Wood M.J., Steiner, G., Ebeling M., Hossbach M., Wettstein J.G., Duffield G.E., Gatti S., Hankins M.W., Foster R.G., Peirson S.N. (2013) The CRTC1-SIK1 pathway regulates entrainment of the circadian clock. Cell 154: 1100-1111.
  • Rund S.C., Bonar N.A., Champion M.M., Ghazi J.P., Houk C., Leming M.T., Syed Z., Duffield G.E. (2013) Daily rhythms in antennal protein and olfactory sensitivity in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Scientific Reports (Nature publishing) 3: 2494.
  • Keating J.A., Bhattacharya D., Rund S.C., Hoover S., Dasgupta R., Lee S.J., Duffield, G.E., Striker R. (2013) Mosquito protein kinase G phosphorylates flavivirus NS5 and alters flight behavior in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 13: 590-600.
  • Rund, S.C., Gentile J.E. and Duffield, G.E. (2013) Extensive circadian and light regulation of the transcriptome in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. BMC Genomics 14: 218 [Epub ahead of print, April 3]