Giles E. Duffield Associate Professor

Molecular biology of circadian rhythms in mammals and mosquito vectors.
Clock control of metabolism.
Giles E. Duffield

Research Interests:

The circadian clock regulates 24-hour endogenous rhythms in gene expression, biochemistry, physiology and behavior of all eukaryotic organisms. This clock is based on a cell autonomous system comprised of transcriptional-translational feedback loops. My laboratory is focused on understanding the molecular basis for the circadian clock in both vertebrate (mouse and mammalian tissue culture) and invertebrate (mosquito) animals. Circadian clock biology is relevant to human health. Dysfunction of the circadian clock underlies several disease states, including Seasonal Affective Disorder, and sleep and metabolic disorders associated with shift-work, including obesity and diabetes. Understanding of the circadian system within the African malaria vector, such as Anopheles gambiae, may allow generation of improved insect control and malaria transmission controls strategies. The lab is interested in elucidating the molecular basis of the circadian clock in the mouse and insects using a range of traditional and state of the art molecular, cellular and behavioral approaches. Our studies are supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the American Heart Association, the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, the UND Eck Institute for Global Health, the UND Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases, and the University of Notre Dame, and previously by the Royal Society, the Wellcome Trust, the NIMH.


  • Associate Professor, University of Notre Dame, IN
  • Postdoctoral and Faculty Research (Wellcome Trust Research Fellow, Royal Society University Research Fellow), Dartmouth Medical School and Imperial College, London
  • Ph.D., University of Cambridge 1998

Recent Papers:

  •  Duffield, G.E., Robles-Murguia, M., Hou, T.Y., McDonald K.A. (2021) Targeted disruption of the Inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (Id4) gene alters photic entrainment of the circadian clock. International Journal of Molecular Sciences (Special Issue ‘Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Synchronization within the Mammalian Circadian System’) 22: 9632.
  • Rund S.S.C., Labb L.F., Benefiel O.M., Duffield G.E. (2020) Artificial light at night increases Aedes aegypti mosquito biting behavior with implications for arboviral disease transmission. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 103:2450-2452. 
  • Duffield G.E., Han S., Hou T.Y., del la Iglesia H.O, McDonald K.A. and Robles-Murguia M. (2020) Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 regulates photoentrainment responses in mice: Differential responses due to circadian phase, duration and light intensity. Journal of Biological Rhythms 5:555-575.
  • de oliveira Bezerra D., Rodrigues de Lucena L.R., Duffield G.E., Acri D., Mendes Pontes A.R. (2020) Activity pattern, budget and diurnal rhythmicity of the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) in northeastern Brazil (2020). Mammalian Biology Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 100: 337–353.
  • Hickner P.V., Mori A., Rund S.S.C., Sheppard A.D., Chadee D., Duffield G.E., Severson D.W. (2019). QTL determining diel flight activity in male Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Journal of Heredity 110: 310-320.
  • Duffield G.E., Acri, D.J., George G.F., Sheppard A.D.#, Beebe N.W., Ritchie S.A. and Burkot T.R. (2019). Diel flight activity of wild caught Anopheles farauti (s.s.) and An. hinesorum malaria mosquitoes from northern Queensland, Australia. Parasites and Vectors 12(1):48
  • Michael E. Hughes, Ravi Allada, Ron Anafi, Alaaddin Bulak Arpat, Gad Asher, Pierre Baldi, Charissa de Bekker, Deborah Bell-Pedersen, Justin Blau, Steve Brown, M. Fernanda Ceriani, Zheng Chen, Joanna Chiu, Juergen Cox, Alexander M. Crowell, Derk-Jan Dijk, Luciano DiTacchio, Giles E. Duffield, Jay C. Dunlap, Kristen Eckel-Mahan, Karyn A. Esser, Frédéric Gachon, David Gatfield, Paul de Goede, Susan S. Golden, Carla Green, John Harer, Stacey Harmer, Jeff Haspel, Michael H. Hastings, Hanspeter Herzel, Erik D. Herzog, Christy Hoffmann, Christian Hong, Jacob J. Hughey, Jennifer M. Hurley, Carl Johnson, Steve A. Kay, Nobuya Koike, Karl Kornacker, Achim Kramer, Katja Lamia, Tanya Leise, Scott A. Lewis, Jiajia Li1, Xiaodong Li, Andrew C. Liu, Jennifer J. Loros, Tami A. Martino, Jerome S. Menet, Martha Merrow, Andrew J. Millar, Todd Mockler, Felix Naef, Emi Nagoshi, Michael N. Nitabach, Maria Olmedo, Dmitri Nusinow, David Rand, Akhilesh B. Reddy, Maria S. Robles, Till Roenneberg, Michael Rosbash, Samuel S.C. Rund, Paolo Sassone-Corsi, Amita Sehgal, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Debra J. Skene, Kai-Florian Storch, Joseph S. Takahashi, Hiroki R. Ueda, Chuck Weitz, Pål O. Westermark, Herman Wijnen, Gang Wu, Seung-Hee Yoo, Michael Young, Tomasz Zielinski, and John B. Hogenesch (2017). Guidelines for genome-scale analysis of biological rhythms. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 2017 Nov 1:748730417728663. 
  • Suckow M.A., Wolter W.R., Duffield G.E. (2017) The Impact of Environmental Light Intensity on Experimental Tumor Growth. Anticancer Research 37: 4967-4971
  • Sheppard A.D., Rund S.S.C., George G.F., Clark E., Acri D., Duffield G.E. (2017) Light manipulation of mosquito behavior: acute and sustained photic suppression of biting in the Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito. Parasites and Vectors 10:255.
  • Duffield G.E. (2016) ‘Understanding the genes that make our circadian clocks tick’. The Conversation (online media outlet), 4 November, 2016,
  • Rund, S.S.C., Yoo, B., Alam, C.D.C., Green, T., Stephens, M.T., Zeng, E., Sheppard, A.D., George, G.F., Duffield, G.E., Milenković, T., Pfrender, M.E. (2016) Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: Network analysis reveals additional rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation. BMC Genomics 17:653.
  • Zhou, P. Robles-Murguia M., Mathew D., and Duffield G.E. (2016) Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice. Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2016, Article ID 6785948, 11 pages.
  • Champion M.M., Sheppard A.D., Rund S.S.C., Freed S.A., O’Tousa J.E. and Duffield G.E. (2015) Qualitative and quantitative proteomics methods for the analysis of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito proteome. Invited book chapter for ‘Short views on Insect Genomics and Proteomics: Insect Proteomics, Volume 2’ (Editors: T. Adeniran, R. Chandrasekar and M. Goldsmith), within the ‘Entomology in Focus’ book series (Editor: F.L. Cônsoli) (Springer publishers).
  • Zhou P., Werner J., Lee D., Sheppard A.D., Liangpunsakul S. and Duffield G.E. (2015) A dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol, 49:399-408.
  • Leming M.T., Rund S.S.C., Behura S.K., Duffield G.E., O’Tousa J.E. (2014) Adatabase of circadian and diel rhythmic gene expression in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. BMC Genomics 15:1128.
  • Metzinger M., Miramontes B., Zhou P., Liu Y., Peng J., Chapman S., Sun L., Sasser T.A., Duffield G.E., Stack M.S., Leevy W.M. (2014) Correlation of X-ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (QMR) Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice. Sensors, 14: 18526-18542.
  • Zhou P., Hummel A.D., Pywell C.M., Dong X.C. and Duffield G.E. (2014) High fat diet rescues disturbances to metabolic homeostasis and survival in the Id2 null mouse in a sex-specific manner. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 451: 374-381.
  • Balmert N.J., Rund S.S.C., Ghazi J.P., Zhou P., Duffield G.E. (2014) Time-of-day specific changes in metabolic detoxification and insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Journal of Insect Physiology 64:30-39
  • Zhou P., Ross R.A., Pywell C., Liangpunsakul S. and Duffield G.E. (2014) Disturbances to the murine hepatic circadian clock in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. Scientific Reports (Nature publishing) 4: 3725.
  • Mathew D., Pywell C.M., Zhou P., Van der Veen D.R., Shao J., Xi Y., Bonar N.A., Hummel A., Chapman S., Leevy W.M, Duffield G.E. (2013) Ablation of the Id2 gene results in altered circadian feeding behavior, and sex-specific enhancement of insulin sensitivity and elevated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. PLoS ONE 8: e73064.
  • Jagannath A., Butler R., Godinho S.I.H., Couch Y., Brown L.A., Vasudevan S.R., Flanagan K.C., Anthony D.C., Churchill G.C., Wood M.J., Steiner, G., Ebeling M., Hossbach M., Wettstein J.G., Duffield G.E., Gatti S., Hankins M.W., Foster R.G., Peirson S.N. (2013) The CRTC1-SIK1 pathway regulates entrainment of the circadian clock. Cell 154: 1100-1111.
  • Rund S.C., Bonar N.A., Champion M.M., Ghazi J.P., Houk C., Leming M.T., Syed Z., Duffield G.E. (2013) Daily rhythms in antennal protein and olfactory sensitivity in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Scientific Reports (Nature publishing) 3: 2494.
  • Keating J.A., Bhattacharya D., Rund S.C., Hoover S., Dasgupta R., Lee S.J., Duffield, G.E., Striker R. (2013) Mosquito protein kinase G phosphorylates flavivirus NS5 and alters flight behavior in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 13: 590-600.
  • Rund, S.C., Gentile J.E. and Duffield, G.E. (2013) Extensive circadian and light regulation of the transcriptome in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. BMC Genomics 14: 218